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Science of healthy eating

hvbias

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There is a lot of "hippie science" out there on healthy eating/dieting, I figured I would start this thread for proper scientific research/trials into this :)

Here is a really good meta-analysis

Effects of Vegetarian Diets on Blood Lipids: A Systematic Review and Meta‐Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/JAHA.115.002408

Background
Vegetarian diets exclude all animal flesh and are being widely adopted by an increasing number of people; however, effects on blood lipid concentrations remain unclear. This meta‐analysis aimed to quantitatively assess the overall effects of vegetarian diets on blood lipids.

Methods and Results
We searched PubMed, Scopus, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, and the Cochrane Library through March 2015. Studies were included if they described the effectiveness of vegetarian diets on blood lipids (total cholesterol, low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride). Weighted mean effect sizes were calculated for net changes by using a random‐effects model. We performed subgroup and univariate meta‐regression analyses to explore sources of heterogeneity. Eleven trials were included in the meta‐analysis. Vegetarian diets significantly lowered blood concentrations of total cholesterol, low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non–high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the pooled estimated changes were −0.36 mmol/L (95% CI −0.55 to −0.17; P<0.001), −0.34 mmol/L (95% CI −0.57 to −0.11; P<0.001), −0.10 mmol/L (95% CI −0.14 to −0.06; P<0.001), and −0.30 mmol/L (95% CI −0.50 to −0.10; P=0.04), respectively. Vegetarian diets did not significantly affect blood triglyceride concentrations, with a pooled estimated mean difference of 0.04 mmol/L (95% CI −0.05 to 0.13; P=0.40).

Conclusions
This systematic review and meta‐analysis provides evidence that vegetarian diets effectively lower blood concentrations of total cholesterol, low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non–high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol. Such diets could be a useful nonpharmaceutical means of managing dyslipidemia, especially hypercholesterolemia.

Background
Vegetarian diets exclude all animal flesh and are being widely adopted by an increasing number of people; however, effects on blood lipid concentrations remain unclear. This meta‐analysis aimed to quantitatively assess the overall effects of vegetarian diets on blood lipids.

Methods and Results
We searched PubMed, Scopus, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, and the Cochrane Library through March 2015. Studies were included if they described the effectiveness of vegetarian diets on blood lipids (total cholesterol, low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride). Weighted mean effect sizes were calculated for net changes by using a random‐effects model. We performed subgroup and univariate meta‐regression analyses to explore sources of heterogeneity. Eleven trials were included in the meta‐analysis. Vegetarian diets significantly lowered blood concentrations of total cholesterol, low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non–high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the pooled estimated changes were −0.36 mmol/L (95% CI −0.55 to −0.17; P<0.001), −0.34 mmol/L (95% CI −0.57 to −0.11; P<0.001), −0.10 mmol/L (95% CI −0.14 to −0.06; P<0.001), and −0.30 mmol/L (95% CI −0.50 to −0.10; P=0.04), respectively. Vegetarian diets did not significantly affect blood triglyceride concentrations, with a pooled estimated mean difference of 0.04 mmol/L (95% CI −0.05 to 0.13; P=0.40).

Conclusions
This systematic review and meta‐analysis provides evidence that vegetarian diets effectively lower blood concentrations of total cholesterol, low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non–high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol. Such diets could be a useful nonpharmaceutical means of managing dyslipidemia, especially hypercholesterolemia.
 

Wombat

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Humans are tolerant of a wide variation in diet. I don't believe there is a best diet for all races/cultures. Variety and moderation is good.
Lack of exercise is more of a problem.
 

Sal1950

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Eat a large double cheeseburger and frys at least twice a week, a couple slices of pizza on Friday, and a generous bowl of pasta on Sundays.
The road to good health can be delicious and enjoyable too. ;)
 

Wombat

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Eat a large double cheeseburger and frys at least twice a week, a couple slices of pizza on Friday, and a generous bowl of pasta on Sundays.
The road to good health can be delicious and enjoyable too. ;)

Yourself and Thomas could make money as the 'before' reference standard for improvement. :cool:

I have followed a 'sensible' diet regime for decades without great benefit. Being able to choose my parents would have been better. o_O

The science is now coming in on genetic influences on response to diet, medication, and other life influences and circumstances re health and longevity.
 
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dallasjustice

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I agree that there are many different diets which can improve overall health. Of course, any beneficial effect from a new diet should always be compared with the quality of the old diet. That’s really the problem with all the “bro science” on the internet. There’s lots of folks who eat ****** foods and are metabolically damaged who have now switched to a slightly less ****** diet. Those people think they’ve discovered the fountain of youth. IMO, veganism is the best example of this phenomenon.

Hominids evolved eating fishes and other meats. Homo sapien brains would have never grown to the extent they have without animinal foods. It is close to impossible to maintain a healthy vegan diet without vitamin supplements. Most vegans are mineral deficient and suffer from a variety of mental health problems, if they do it long enough. The brain needs animal fats.

Low cholesterol is not the goal. The brain uses 25% of overall energy and needs cholesterol to function properly. Cholesterol is a key nutrient.

The cholesterol-heart hypothesis has been shot down. It is clear now that heart disease is not caused by too much LDL-P. The cause is most likely oxidized LDL. What causes LDL to oxidize? That’s the question. The answer is likely hyperinsulinemia.

IMO, the foods to be avoided are:
1. Anything sweet; including virtually all fruits
2. Anything containing refined grain products.
3. Soy
4. Any processed vegetable oil (except olive oil and coconut oil)
5. Any liquid calories
6. Any pre-digested or processed starches.


Don’t be afraid to eat lots of natural animal fats and protein. The older you get, the more you need protein to maintain proper muscle mass. Muscle mass closely correlates with longevity.

It is also very important to exercise on a regular basis. High intensity interval training with lots of compound movements is the most effective and efficient type of exercise. IMO, using repetitive motion machines in the gym is ineffective.
 
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hvbias

hvbias

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The science is now coming in on genetic influences on response to diet, medication, and other life influences and circumstances re health and longevity.

Twin twin concordance studies have shown us this much on disease in general for a while. Since we can not control our genes, that doesn't mean we should avoid lifestyle modification.

@dallasjustice I agree with some of what you're saying

LDL-P should be what is investigated.

I am afraid a lot of what you wrote is the exact type of bro science that you (and I of course) condemn.

I want to see research on these claims

Most vegans are mineral deficient and suffer from a variety of mental health problems, if they do it long enough
1. Anything sweet; including virtually all fruits
3. Soy
4. Any processed vegetable oil (except olive oil and coconut oil)
5. Any liquid calories
Don’t be afraid to eat lots of natural animal fats and protein

My highlight on lots there because while it is biochemically sound that we need animal fat/protein I am questioning where this lots came from.


To be completely clear here:

I am interested in the science. I'm not here to judge anyone. I eat all kinds of meat, I am not a vegan.

With how much we have learned from the Framingham Study I am not ready to discard many of the key points from their research. Neither is every single cardiologist (including academics) I know.
 

Sal1950

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Is low lipid levels always good?
Sure! Thank goodness for statin drugs, we can eat what we enjoy and still maintain low lipid profiles.
"Better Living Through Chemistry" Dupont taught me from a young age. :p

1e9728d4d34defb4648c9795b646107d.jpg
 

bigx5murf

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What's the avg caloric intake of the vegas diet compared to the previous? Because many of those benefits can come from a caloric restriction diet alone.

Diet probably varies between individuals too much to make any sweeping conclusions.

I know it's anecdotal, but I personally have a lot of food allergies, and all of them are specific fruits and vegetables. Side effects range from indigestion, to hives, and sinus issues. Crazy part is I can eat small amounts with no side effect. Pass the threshold on fruits and vegetables, and it literally makes me feel like I've got food poisoning.

I have a cousin who's been vegan his whole life. By all blood work, he's perfectly healthy, maybe more so than average. He also lives in a country with mandatory military conscription. When he showed up at conscription, they told him he was physically too weak to defend his country, and sent him home. He's over 6 feet tall, and weighs around 140lbs.
 

Sal1950

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Wombat

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When I look at retired athletes I wonder about the preoccupation with sport, fitness and health. :rolleyes:
 

bigx5murf

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That's pretty skinny for his height, must be very low in muscle mass.

Skinny doesn't even describe it. But point is, blood work didn't tell the whole story.

On another anecdote, my childhood best friend is a former army Ranger. He's also over 6 feet tall. He said during Ranger school, he got down to 150lbs due to sleep and food deprivation. He described it as looking like a full blown AIDS patient. That guy is tough, like eats bugs raw tough. He's still lanky, even today after being out the service for a few years.
 

RayDunzl

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I worked with a former Ranger too for a while. Small guy.

Instead of lunch he'd go out and run 50 miles or so.
 

Wombat

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I worked with a former Ranger too for a while. Small guy.

Instead of lunch he'd go out and run 50 miles or so.

Wow, 50mph. :D
 

dallasjustice

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I know it's anecdotal, but I personally have a lot of food allergies, and all of them are specific fruits and vegetables
I wonder why just about all people who have food allergies have them for fruits, vegetables, processed dairy, grains and nuts. I’ve never heard of someone who suffers from an animinal protein/fat food allergy.
 

WoodyLuvr

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I wonder why just about all people who have food allergies have them for fruits, vegetables, processed dairy, grains and nuts. I’ve never heard of someone who suffers from an animinal protein/fat food allergy.
Wow, I simply can not believe you have not never heard of marine protein allergies (aka shellfish and seafood allergies)... they are quite prevalent and in some cases can be quite lethal. I myself am severely allergic to shellfish which manifested during puberty and unfortunately covers both groups: crustaceans and mollusks. I can't even be near where it is being cooked/prepared without suffering consequences.

IMO, the foods to be avoided are:
1. Anything sweet; including virtually all fruits
2. Anything containing refined grain products.
3. Soy
4. Any processed vegetable oil (except olive oil and coconut oil)
5. Any liquid calories
6. Any pre-digested or processed starches.

Don’t be afraid to eat lots of natural animal fats and protein. The older you get, the more you need protein to maintain proper muscle mass. Muscle mass closely correlates with longevity.

Though I agree and concur with many things you said in your first post (most especially about the need for exercise) wouldn't you have to agree that portion size; number of meals; eating-in-moderation; and making healthier food choices is probably a bigger factor of concern to one's health than worrying about and or avoiding that single banana one may have their eye on... or anything on that list of yours?

Humans simply tend to overeat, gluttonously so, and lead sedentary lives... you are actually encouraging people to go ahead and eat lots of animal! Respectfully, that is horrible health/dietary advice.
 
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