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Very good info, curious, how does one calculate the voltage based on ref level and volume knob level?

What’s the benefit of using auto ref with the typical consumer equipment vs running fixed?

What’s the benefit of using auto ref with the typical consumer equipment vs running fixed?

As for calculating the voltage:

- Volume is shown in dBr is somewhat of an open scale, where the reference value is implied. In this case, we can assume the reference value is the user-set Ref Level. So with ref level of 13 dBu, and a volume of -4.5 dBr, we have an output of 8.5 dBu (13 - 4.5 = 8.5).
- dBu uses a reference value of 0.775 Vrms
- Calculation for converting voltage to decibels is 20 * log(V2/V1) where our desired voltage is V2 and our ref voltage can replace V1
- Plug our values in with a desired voltage of 2.1 V... 20 * log(2.1/0.775) we get a gain of 8.658 dB, and I rounded down to the nearest 0.5 dB to account for the increments of the RME's volume control