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810 digital sources from 1992 to 2024 ranked by THD


Active Member
Forum Donor
Jan 17, 2020
From 2013 onward, I began a systematic survey of FFT measurements published by some German Hi-Fi magazines. Those magazines belong to a publisher which runs its own laboratory, thus ensuring consistency in the measurement method.


At that time, I was driven by sheer curiosity. My goal was to establish an objective hierarchy among digital sources the best I could. Though informative FFT-based analysis is to assess the behavior of a particular device, it was indeed practically impossible to compare multiple devices between them. In time, there were no such thing as Audiosciencereview and I was left with no other choice to do my homework the old way. I then decided to compute manually the total harmonic distortion over the first significant harmonics of each device read on the FFT in order to rank the digital sources tested by the aforementioned magazines.

Obviously, the result of this work is by no mean a complete nor even sufficient way of assessing the performances of digital devices. Neither is this survey a product of absolute accuracy. The best I could do is a +/- 1 dB accuracy for each harmonics. Nevertheless, I think that this survey as been useful for me to have a glimpse over the evolution of digital techniques for home audio over a 30 years span and to make interesting observations (more of that latter).

You will find below the pdf files of two tables translated in English from their respective French originals. The first table lists a total of 808 devices by chronological order. In the second table, these devices are ranked by the level of their respective THD.

For the French speakers among you, here is a link towards a publication of the original French tables : https://cabasse.vraiforum.com/t6078-40-annees-de-mesures-de-distorsions-de-sources-numeriques.htm

In the following message, you will find the complete list of all devices which are part of this survey.

06/23/2024 and 06/24/2024 updated files (version 17(a), with 2 new devices, new information and correction):


  • Digital_Sources_Chronological_Order_v17.pdf
    293.4 KB · Views: 47
  • Digital_Sources_THD_Ranking_v17a.pdf
    298.1 KB · Views: 53
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Here is the list of all the reviewed and tested devices (updated 06/23/2024) :

1°/ SA-CD players tested in DSD (through SA-CD test-disc)
2°/ Digital devices tested in HR PCM (24 bits)
3°/ Digital devices tested in standard PCM (16 bits)

1°/ SA-CD players, DVD players and DAC with SA-CD capability and universal players tested in DSD:

Accuphase DP100+DC101
Arcam DV 139
Cayin SCD 50T
Denon DCD 1500 AE
Denon DCD-SA1
Denon DVD 1920
Denon DVD 2910
Denon DVD 3910
Denon DVD 3930
Denon DVD A1 XV (DVD-5910 in the USA and Canada)
Esoteric X 05
Harman Kardon DVD 47
Lindemann 820
MacIntosh MCD201
MacIntosh MCD500
MacIntosh MVP861 AC
Marantz DV 7600
Marantz SA-1
Marantz SA 11 S1
Marantz SA 15 S1
Marantz SA 7001
Marantz SA 7001 KI
Marantz SA 8400
Marantz UD9004
Musical Fidelity Tri-Vista SACD
NAD M5 (tweaked par Swoboda Audio)
Onkyo DV SP 502 E
Onkyo DV SP 1000E
Philips DVD 963 SA
Philips DVP 9000S
Philips SACD-1000
Pioneer DV 565A
Pioneer DV 600 AV
Pioneer DV 696 AV (Elite DV-46AV in the USA and Canada)
Pioneer DV LX 50
Pioneer PD D6
Samsung DVD HD 945
Shanling SCD-T 200
Sharp DX-SX1
Sony DVP NS 930V
Sony DVP NS 999ES
Sony DVP-S9000ES
Sony SCD-1 (almost identical to SCD-777ES)
Sony SCD-555ES
Sony SCD-XA1200ES
Sony SCD-XA9000ES
Sony SCD-XB940QS
T+A D10
T+A Pulsar SACD 1245 R
T+A SACD 1250 R
T+A SACD 1260 R
T+A SADV 1245 R
Yamaha DVD S 2500

2°/ DVD-V, DVD-A, BR-D, SA-CD players, converters, preamplifiers-processors, network players, sound cards, DAP, etc... tested in HR PCM (24 bits):

Accuphase VX 700
Accustic Arts Tube DAC II MK3
Accustic Arts Tube-DAC II SE
Advance Acoustic MDA 503
Advance Paris WTX-Stream Tubes
Aesthetix Romulus
AMC US24192i
AMR DP-777
Antelope Zodiac Gold+Voltikus
Anthem BLX 200
Apogee Rosetta 200
Aqua La Voce S3
Aqvox USB 2 D/A
Arcam AirDAC
Arcam CDS50
Arcam DV137
Arcam FMJ BDP100
Arcam FMJ BDP300
Arcam FMJ D33
Arcam rDAC
Arcam UDP 411
Astell&Kern AK300
Astell&Kern AK500
Asus Xonar Essence One
Atoll DAC 200
Atoll MS 120
Atoll ST 100
Atoll ST 200 Signature
Audia Flight FL CD Three S
Audio Analogue Vivace
Audio Research CD6
Audio Research DAC 7
Audio Research DAC 8
Audio Research DSPre
Auralic Altaïr
Auralic ARK MX+
Auralic Aries G1+Vega G1
Auralic Vega
Auralic Vega G2.1
Aurender A100
AVM Evolution SD 3.2
AVM Evolution MP 5.2
AVM Music Server ML 6.2
AVM Ovation CD 8.2
AVM Ovation MP 6.2
AVM Ovation SD 6.2
AVM Ovation SD 8.2
AVM MP 8.3
Ayon CD-10 II Signature
Ayon CD-35
Ayon S3
Ayon S-5
Ayre DX-5
Ayre QB-9 (with Burr Brown DSD1796)
Ayre QB-9 (with ESS ES9016)
Ayre QB 9 24/192
Ayre QX-5 Twenty
Benchmark DAC 1
Benchmark DAC 1 Pre
Block DAC 100
Bluesound Node
Bluesound Node 2
Bluesound Node 130
Bluesound Vault 2
B.M.C. DAC 1 HiRes
B.M.C. PureDAC
Brinkman Nyquist
Bryston BP 17 / DAC
Burmester 113
Burmester 150
Cabasse Stream Source
Cambridge Azur 650 BD
Cambridge Azur 651 BD
Cambridge Azur 751 BD
Cambridge Azur 752 BD
Cambridge Azur 851N
Cambridge CXN
Cambridge CXN V2
Cambridge CXU
Cambridge DacMagic
Cambridge DacMagic 200M
Cambridge DacMagic Plus
Cambridge StreamMagic V2
Cayin DAC11
Cayin iDAC-6
Calyx DAC 24/192
Chord Dave
Chord Hugo
Chord MoJo 2
Chord QBD 76 HD
Cocktail Audio N15
Cocktail Audio N25
Cocktail Audio X-12
Cocktail Audio X-40
Cocktail Audio X-45
Consonance Reference DSD1.1
Consonance Reference DSD1.3
Creek Evolution 50CD
CyberHome CH DVD 635 S
Cyrus Pre Qx DAC
dCS Bartok
Denon DBP 2010
Denon DBP 2012 UD
Denon DBT 1713 UD
Denon DBT 3313 UD
Denon DNP-F109
Denon DVD 1400
Denon DVD 1710
Denon DVD 1730
Denon DVD 1800 BD
Denon DVD 1910
Denon DVD 2900
Denon DVD 3800 BD
Denon DVD-5000
Denon DVD A1 (DVD-9000 in the USA and Canada)
Denon DVD A11 (DVD-5900 in the USA and Canada)
Digibit Aria 2
Digibit Aria DAC
Digitale Audio Systeme HD-Player Model 2
ELAC Discovery DS-S101G
Electrocompaniet ECD 1
Electrocompaniet EMP 2
Electrocompaniet EMP 3
emmLabs DAC 2
Entotem Plato
Eternal Arts DP DAC Mk II
Fostex HP-A3
Harman Kardon DBP 10
Harman Kardon DVD 22
Harman Kardon DVD 25
Harman Kardon DVD 30
Harman Kardon DVD 37
Hegel HD2
Hegel HD11
iFi Audio iDSD Micro
iFi Audio Pro iDSD
iFi Audio ZEN Stream + ZEN DAC V2
JVC XV N 316
JVC XV N 422
Kenwood DVF 3080
King Rex UD 384
Kiss DP 1000
Lake People DAC C 460
Lavry DA 11
Lexicon MC12
Lexicon RT 10
Lexicon RT 20
LG DV 9900 H
LH Labs Geek Out 1000
Linn Akurate DS
Linn Akurate DS Dynamik
Linn Akurate DSM/1
Linn Kinos
Linn Klimax DS/1
Linn Klimax DS/3
Linn Klimax DS Dynamik
Linn Klimax DSM
Linn Majik DS Dynamik
Linn Majik DS V2
Linn Selekt DSM
Linn Unidisk 1.1
Linn Unidisk 2.1
Lindemann musicbook:25DSD
Linnenberg u:c:a
Loewe BlueTechVision 3D
Lotoo PAW-S1
Lumin T2
Luxman DA-250
Luxman D-N150
M2Tech Young
MacIntosh C 50 AC
MacIntosh D100
MacIntosh D1100
MacIntosh MCD85 AC
MacIntosh MCT450+D150
MacIntosh MVP881BR
MacIntosh MVP891
Marantz BD 8002
Marantz DV 12 S2
Marantz DV 6400
Marantz DV 9600
Marantz NA 6005
Marantz NA 7004
Marantz NA 8005
Marantz ND 8006
Marantz SA 10
Marantz SA 14S1 SE
Marantz SACD 30n
Marantz UD5005
Marantz UD5007
Marantz UD7006
Marantz UD7007
Marantz UD8004
Mark Levinson N° 40
Mark Levinson N° 519
Mark Levinson N° 5101
Matrix Mini i-Pro
M-Audio Fast Track Ultra
Meitner MA 1
Meitner MA-1 V2
Meitner MA 2
Meridian Director
Meridian Explorer
Meridian Sooloos MediaCore 200
Musical Fidelity Encore Connect
Musical Fidelity M1 Clic
Musical Fidelity M1 DAC II
Musical Fidelity M1SDAC
Musical Fidelity M3SCD
Musical Fidelity M6 DAC
Musical Fidelity M6scd
Musical Fidelity M6x-DAC
Musical Fidelity MX-DAC
Musical Fidelity V-DAC
Musical Fidelity V-DAC II
Musical Fidelity X-DAC V3
NAD C658
NAD T577
Nagra Classic DAC
Naim DAC
Naim NAC-N 172 XS
Naim NAC-N272
Naim ND5 XS
Naim NDX
Naim NDX 2
North Star Design Blue Diamond
North Star Design Essencio Plus
North Star Design Excelsio
North Star Design Fluxio
North Star Design Incanto
Nubert nuConnect TrX
Nubert nuControl
NuForce DAC-9
NuForce Icon HDP
NuPrime DAC-9x
NuPrime Omnia WR-1
Olive 06 HD
Onkyo BD-SP809
Onkyo DV BD 606
Onkyo DV SP 402
Onkyo DV SP 404
Onkyo DV SP 501
Onkyo T-4070
Oppo BDP-103D
Oppo BDP-105
Oppo BDP-105D
Oppo Sonica DAC
Panasonic DMP BD 30
Panasonic DMP BD 50
Panasonic DMP BD 80
Panasonic DMP BDT 500
Panasonic DMP BDT 570
Panasonic DMR E 500 H
Panasonic DMR EH 60
Panasonic DVD RV 62
Panasonic DVD S 24
Panasonic DVD S 31
Panasonic DVD S 35
Panasonic DVD S 42
Panasonic DVD S 47
Panasonic DVD S 75
Panasonic DVD S 97
Peachtree Grand Pre
Philips BDP 7100
Philips BDP 7200
Philips BDP 7300
Philips BDP 9600
Philips DVD 962 SA
Philips DVP 720 SA
Philips DVP 5140
Philips DVP 5900
Phonosophie BDP LX08
Phonosophie DAC 1
Pioneer BDP 51 FD
Pioneer BDP 320
Pioneer BDP LX08
Pioneer BDP LX52
Pioneer BDP LX54
Pioneer BDP LX55
Pioneer BDP LX70
Pioneer BDP LX70A
Pioneer BDP LX88
Pioneer BDP LX91
Pioneer DV 360
Pioneer DV 380
Pioneer DV 393
Pioneer DV 464
Pioneer DV 490V
Pioneer DV 550
Pioneer DV 575A
Pioneer DV 868 AVi (Elite DV-59AVi in the USA and Canada)
Pioneer DV 989 AVi (Elite DV-79AVi in the USA and Canada)
Pioneer DV 2750
Pioneer DVR 433 H
Pioneer N-30
Pioneer N-50
Pioneer N-50A
Pioneer N-70A
Pioneer N-70AE
Pioneer N-P01
Pioneer PD-70AE
Pioneer U-05S
Playback Design Syrah+Merlot
Playback Designs MPD-3 DAC
Primare BD32
Primare DVD 30
Primare NP30
Pro-Ject CD Box DS2
Pro-Ject DAC Box FL
Pro-Ject Pre Box DS2 Digital
Pro-Ject Stream Box DS
Profitec TC 7500
PS Audio Perfect Wave
Purist Micro 2TB
Rega DAC
Rega Saturn MK3
Rega Saturn-R
RME Fireface UCX
ReQuest "The Beast"
Resolution Audio Cantata Music Server
Restek Epos+
Restek MDAC+
Rotel DT-6000
Rotel RC1570
Rotel RDD 1580
Rotel RDV1092
Rotel RSP 1066
Rotel RT-09
Rotel RT-12
Samsung BDP 1000
Samsung BDP 1400
Samsung BDP 1500
Samsung BDP 1600
Samsung BDP 2500
Samsung BDP 4610
Samsung DVD HD 850
Samsung DVD P 355
Shanling CD 3.2
Shanling H 1.2
Shanling M 3.2
Sherwood BDP 6003
Sony BDP S1E
Sony BDP S300
Sony BDP S360
Sony BDP S500
Sony BDP S760
Sony BDP S5000ES
Sony DVP LS 785 V
Sony DVP NS 36
Sony DVP NS 92 V
Sony DVP NS 330
Sony DVP NS 430
Sony DVP NS 730P
SPL Diamond
Styleaudio Carat-Ruby 2
Sugden Masterclass DAC-4
T+A BD 1260R
T+A DAC 200
T+A MP 1000E
T+A MP 1250R
T+A MP 1260R
T+A MP 2000R
T+A MP 2000R Mk II
T+A MP 2500 R
T+A MP 3000 HV
T+A MP 3100 HV
T+A Music Player balanced
T+A PDP 3000 HV
T+A SDV 3100 HV
TAD DA-1000
TAG McLaren AV 192 R
Technics SL-G700M2
Technics ST-C700
Technics SU-R1
Terratec DMX 6Fire USB
Toshiba HD E 1
Toshiba RD XS 34
Toshiba SD 260
Trigon Chronolog
Trinnov Amethyst
Vincent DAC-1
Violectric DAC V 800
Wadia 121
Wadia 321
Wadia di122
Wadia di322
Weiss DAC202
Weiss MAN301
Yamada DVD Mi 220 X
Yamaha BD-A1010
Yamaha CD-N500
Yamaha CD-S2100
Yamaha DVD S 540
Yamaha DVD S 550
Yamaha DVD S 559
Yamaha DVD S 2300

3°/ CD players and recorders, SA-CD and DVD players, converters, etc... tested in standard PCM (16 bits):

Accuphase DC-330
Accuphase DP-75V
Accuphase DP-77
Accuphase DP-720
Accustic Arts Drive II+Tube DAC II SE
Acurus ACD 11
Advance Acoustic MCD203
Advance Acoustic MCD203 II
Advantage CD 1
Arcam Alpha 8
Arcam Alpha 8 SE
Arcam CD 72 T
Arcam CD 92 T
Arcam FMJ CD23
Arcam FMJ CD23 T
Arcam FMJ CD37
Arcam FMJ MS 250
Arcus DAR300
Arcus Finest class CD 200 S
Atoll CD 100
Atoll CD 100 Signature
Atoll DAC 100
Audiomeca Keops
Audionet ART V2
Audreal Muse Deluxe
Auralic Aries Mini
AVM Evolution CD 5.2
Ayon CD 1
Ayon CD 1s
Ayon CD 07s
Ayre C-5xe MP
Ayre CX 7e
Ayre CX 7e MP
Ayre D-1
Ballad CD 200 S
BC Acoustique EX-614
Bryston BCD 1
Burmester 061
Burmester 069+Reference
Burmester 089
Burmester Rondo CD 992
Cambridge AXC35
Cambridge Azur 340C
Cambridge Azur 640H
Cambridge Azur 740C
Cambridge Azur C 640 V2
Cambridge DAC 3
Cayin SP CD 300
Cello Reference
Classé CD/DVD 1
Copland CDA 288
Creative Extigy
Creek CD 50 Mk II
Creek CD 53
Creek Destiny CD-Player
Creek Destiny 2 CD-Player
Creek Evo CDP
Creek Evo II CDP
Creek Evolution 100CD
Cyrus CD 8 SE 2
Cyrus DAD 3
Cyrus (Mission) DAD 3 Q
Cyrus (Mission) DAD 3 Q 24
dCS Verdi+Elgar plus
Denon CDR 1000
Denon CHR F 300
Denon DCD 50
Denon DCD 425
Denon DCD 485
Denon DCD 500 AE
Denon DCD 625 II
Denon DCD 900 NE
Denon DCD 1600 NE
Denon DCD 2000 AE
Denon DCD-A110
Denon DCD-S10
Denon DVD 700
Denon DVD 3300
Densen B420
Dynaco CDV2
Eera DL 1
Electrocompaniet ECC 1
Electrocompaniet ECD 1
Electrocompaniet EMC 1
emmLabs DAC 8 Mk II
Escient SE 160i
ESI Juli@
Esoteric K-05
Esoteric P70+D70
Esoteric SA-50
Esoteric UX-1
Eve Systems Play
Exposure 2010 S
Fujitsu Siemens Activy
Grundig CD 437
Grundig M 100 CD
Harman Kardon HD 950
Harman Kardon HD 970
Harman Kardon HD 990
Helios Model 3 S
Hifidelio Pro
Hitachi DV W 1
Imerge S 1000 40/80
Jadis JS1 MkIII
JVC XV-D9000
JVC XL V 120
JVC XV E 111
Kenwood DP 5090
Kenwood DPF 3030
Kenwood DVF 9010
Kiss DP 500
Kondo M100 DAC
Krell SACD Standard
LG ADR 620
Linear Acoustic CD 1
Linn Akurate CD
Linn Majik CD
Linn Sondek CD12
Lua Cantilena SEL
Lyngdorf CD 1
Lyric CD T 8
MacroSystem Enterprise
Magnat MCD 850
Magnat MCD 1050
MacIntosh MCD 1100 AC
MacIntosh MS 300
Marantz CD 7
Marantz CD14
Marantz CD17
Marantz CD17 M
Marantz CD17 Mk II
Marantz CD 46
Marantz CD 57
Marantz CD 63 Mk II KI Signature
Marantz CD 5004
Marantz CD 6002
Marantz CD 6004
Marantz CDR 630
Marantz DV 4300
Marantz DV 8300
Marantz DR 700
Marantz SA 7 S1
Marantz SA 11 S2
Marantz SA 12 S1
Marantz SA 17 S1
Marantz SA 7003
Marantz SA 8003
Mark Levinson N° 30.6
Mark Levinson N° 36 S
Mark Levinson N° 37+N° 360
Mark Levinson N° 39
Mark Levinson N° 390S
McGee CD-M1
Meridian 508.20
Meridian 565
Meridian 800+861
Meridian 808i
Meridian 808.2
Meridian G 06
Meridian G 07
Micromega Minium
Micromega Reference SACD
Micromega Stage 4
Mission (Cyrus) DAD 3 Q
Mission (Cyrus) DAD 3 Q 24
Music Hall CD 25.2
Musical Fidelity A 324
Musical Fidelity M2scd
Musical Fidelity Nu-Vista CD
Musical Fidelity X-DAC
Musical Fidelity X-DAC V8
Musical Fidelity X-Ray
Musical Fidelity X-Ray V8
Myryad MCD 600
NAD C542
NAD C568
NAD T 585
Naim CD 5i
Naim CD 5x
Naim CD 5 XS+Flatcap XS
Naim CD555+PS
Naim CDS 3
Naim HDX
Onix CD 33/3
Onkyo C 733
Onkyo C-N7050
Onkyo DV S 501
Onkyo DV SP 800
Onkyo DX 7110
Onkyo DX 7210
Onkyo DX 7333
Onkyo DX 7355
Onkyo DX 7511
Onkyo DX 7555
Oppo UDP-203
Orelle DA 188
Panasonic DMR E 100 H
Panasonic DVD A 100
Panasonic DVD A 160
Panasonic DVD RA 82
Panasonic DVD XV 10
Panasonic SL PR 300
Pathos Digit
Philips CD 721
Philips CDR 560
Philips CDR 760
Philips CDR 870
Philips CDR 950
Philips DVD 763 SA
Philips DVD 930 (identical to Grundig GTV 1000)
Philips LHH500
Phonosophie CD-Player 2
Pier Audio CD-880 SE
Pioneer DV 454
Pioneer DV 656 A
Pioneer DV 717
Pioneer DV 747A (Elite DV-47A in the USA and Canada)
Pioneer PD-50AE
Pioneer PD 204
Pioneer PDR 509
Pioneer PDR W 739
Pioneer PD S 06
Pioneer PD S 605
Pioneer PD S 705
Pioneer UDP-LX800
PrimaLuna ProLogue Eight
Primare CD21
Primare CD32
Primare CD35 Prisma
Pro-Ject CD+DAC Box RS
Pro-Ject CD Box S3
Pro-Ject CD Box SE
Progressive Audio CD 2
Purist Statement 7
Quad Artera Play
Quad CDP
Raysonic CD 128
Reavon UBR-X200
Rega Planet
Rega Planet Mk II
Rega Saturn
Reson RH1
Revox M37
Roksan Kandy K2
Roland CD2
Rotel CD11 Tribute
Rotel CD14
Rotel RCD 06
Rotel RCD930 AX
Rotel RCD991 AE
Rotel RCD1570
Rotel RCD1572
Rotel RHDC10
Sharp DX-SX1
Simaudio Moon CD .5
Simaudio Moon CD1
Sony CDP-XA555ES
Sony CDP-XB630
Sony CDP-XB720
Sony CDP-XB930
Sony CDP-XE270
Sony CDP-XE700
Sony DVP LS 500
Sony DVP NS 705
Sony DVP NS 905
Sony DVP-S7700
Sony SCD-555ES
Sony SCD-XA333ES (tweaked by Swoboda Audio)
Sony SCD-XA777ES
Sony SCD-XE670
Sony UHP-H1
Sphinx Project 32
Sugden Fusion 21
Sugden PDT 4F
T+A CD 1230 R
T+A CD 1240 R
T+A CD Player
T+A Music Player
T.A.C. C 35
T.A.C. CD C60
TEAC CD P 1260
TEAC CD P 1850
TEAC VRDS 10 Special Edition
Technics SL PG 4
Technics SL PG 580 A
Technics SL PS 670 D
Terratec DMX 6Fire
Terratec Phase 28
Thomson DTH 1000
Thule Spirit Player
Trigon Recall II
Unison CD Uno
Unison Unico CD
Vincent CD-200
Vincent CD S1.1
Vincent CD S2
Vincent CD S4
Vincent CD S5
Vincent CD S6
Vincent CD S6 Mk II
Vincent CD S7 DAC
Wadia 25
Wadia 27i
Wadia 301
Wadia 830
Wadia 850
Wadia 850i
Wadia S7i
Yamaha CD-S303
Yamaha CD-S700
Yamaha CD-S1000
Yamaha CD-S2000
Yamaha CDR HD 1300
Yamaha CDR HD 1300 DSC
Yamaha CDR HD 1500
Yamaha CDR HD 1500 DSC
Yamaha CDX 396
Yamaha CDX 397 mk II
Yamaha CDX 496
Yamaha CDX 497
Yamaha CDX 596
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Great work! Since this includes a rare collection of SACD measurements from test discs, I am happy to see that the Marantz SA-10 is a step ahead of the “classics”

Thank you. I wish to point out that the German magazines I refer to cease to publish explicit measurements obtain with SA-CD test-disc at the beginning of the 2010s and that the SA-10 was tested in DAC mode, that is to say with the digital generator of the Audio Precision.
Thank you. I wish to point out that the German magazines I refer to cease to publish explicit measurements obtain with SA-CD test-disc at the beginning of the 2010s and that the SA-10 was tested in DAC mode, that is to say with the digital generator of the Audio Precision.
That measurement is mine and done with this demo disc

In DSD64 DAC mode, this is what the measurement was

I myself have this Denon demo SA-CD. Handy to set up a multichannel Hi-Fi installation. :)

It should be said that the pure sinus tones on this disc are at -16 dB (in DSD as well as in PCM) under max level. Thus, SINAD or THD+N measured with this disc (first picture posted by GXAlan) are not comparable with measurements made at or closer to 0 dB (second picture posted by GXAlan).
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What is the voltage level at which theae devices are tested? Could you pleaee post an Excel file?
The actual voltage levels are not documented by the magazines. All measurements at 0 dBFS (or 0 dB SA-CD) digital input, hence at maximum output voltage, whatever it is, of any particular device.

As for an Excel file, I'm not familiar with this particular software. I have worked under Libre Office (Ubuntu distro). Will the original .odt working files do ?
The actual voltage levels are not documented by the magazines. All measurements at 0 dBFS (or 0 dB SA-CD) digital input, hence at maximum output voltage, whatever it is, of any particular device.
This makes the results uncomparable unless you can find more details about the setup.

odt can be converted to csv, so that's fine.
I have re-uploaded the pdf file with the ranking by THD, because I discovered a device was missing in the table.
@Scytales kindly sent me the .odt files. They are document files rather than spreadsheets.

@Scytales if you move this data to a spreadsheet you will be able to list everything on a single page, filter and rerank as you like. I recommend learning to use Excel, Google Sheets or the equivalent in Ubuntu.

For example you can list and then rank and filter at will all of your various information with these columns (and maybe a few more depending on your needs):
IssueBrandModelNoteDACH2...THDUnitsTest Hz

The lists have both dBV (where 0dBV = 1V) and dBr, which is relative to an unstated reference level. Furthermore some tests are at 1kHz while others are at 315Hz or 330Hz. @Scytales did a good job noting this.

A fundamental problem with limited tests like this is that it is unclear to what extent ground loops or saturation (clipping) or other instrumentation issues play a role in the bad results. The other main problem is that the noise level is unknown, which is far more important.

Compare these results to those measured by @amirm: https://www.audiosciencereview.com/...measurements-of-cambridge-dacmagic-plus.6887/
3/2012CambridgeDacMagic PlusUSB in
Wolfson WM8740​
-106 dB​
-102 dB​
-126 dB​
-114 dB​
0.00096 %​
(0.00096% THD = -100.4dBr, input signal 315Hz or 330Hz)

Thanks for posting. Some people may be able to compare their older models to newer ones on the market, keeping the above limitations in mind.
Thank you for your comments.

It may well be possible to improve the data tables.

For a time, I also listed the noise-floor visible on the FFT and the harmonics up the 10th, but the work was much to heavy and not worth it (at least as far as THD is concerned, because higher order harmonics at much reduced level that the first 5 do not contribute significantly to the THD). My intention was never to list noise (or other apparent spurious tones), because it was impossible to figure out an approximate let alone precise noise level contribution from an FFT graph without further information. Hence the choice to list THD and not THD+N. Those tables are only a way to roughly evaluate the output linearity of each device at maximum digital input level.

I think the limited utility of this tables becomes apparent only when you look at them as a closed system, without trying to compare the data to other third parties measurements. I view them essentially as a record of the past, in order to have an idea of the evolution of digital devices over a relatively long time period thanks to an homogeneous cohort of data over said time period.

However, comparison with other measurements might be possible while keeping in mind the limitations you rightly pointed out. For example, I check the German FFT and H data I listed about the Marantz SA-10 and they correlate very well with Amirm's measurements of the RCA output of the same device. Same when comparing the data about the Marantz SACD30n to Vintageflanker's measurements of the same device. The differences are well within plain sample to sample item variation. The example you just gave about the Cambridge DACMagic is a good illustration of the very close proximity between the data coming from Testlab and Amirm's measurements of this particular device.

On the other hand, it is right that there are obvious discrepancies concerning other devices. For example the Sony NW-A105 appears much better in Amirm's review than in the Stereoplay review. When I checked in the actual printed review, I found that the output level was measured at 0.3 V RMS on 32Ω and 300Ω by Testlab, whereas Amirm measured 0.9 V RMS on 600Ω load. Clearly, that is different conditions. So, caution must be exercised when comparing data.

Overall, there is very little overlap between the devices tested on Audiosciencereview and the devices listed in my tables, devices which are for the most of them much older than those tested on Audioscience. Then again, I think it is better to view the tables I have uploaded more as a window open over the past than on our current time, when much more versatile measurements can be found on Audioscience or comparable resources.
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I view them essentially as a record of the past, in order to have an idea of the evolution of digital devices over a relatively long time period thanks to an homogeneous cohort of data over said time period.
I fully agree with you, and especially this comment.
Bearing in mind the intrinsic limits of the survey, here are some thoughts it inspired me.

1. Already in the mid-90s, about 30 years ago from the date of this message, it was possible to build CD players with extremely low distortion when measured with full-scale digital signal.

2. Across the time span of the survey, the very best performances are attainable only with a handful of DAC chips (or, nowadays, in-house DAC designs). So the specific make and model of DAC seems to matter. But it's also possible that manufacturers were incidentally only using high-end DACs in their best design efforts and that it would have been possible for them to achieve the same level of performance with lesser DACs, if only they had wanted it.

3. On the other hand, no one has ever succeeded in producing a source device with the best high-level linearity with some highly acclaimed DACs, such as the Burr Brown PCM1704.

4. Nevertheless, the specific DAC used in a particular device does not guarantee that said device will perform at the best possible level with that specific DAC. There are almost a thousand orders of magnitude between the most efficient device and the least efficient device that implements the high-end Burr Brown PCM1792 DAC!

5. The more time passes, the more we see devices being manufactured with modest or very mediocre performance, even when high-end DACs are implemented. I find this observation disturbing, because it seems to go against progress. Some manufacturers even seem to have made a specialty of deliberately designing devices with low linearity - Atoll, Ayre and (for most of its history) Wadia to name but a few.

6. At the very start of the introduction of SA-CD, some SA-CD players were able to achieve maximum performance, while no source capable of 24-bit replay (whether a DVD player or a BRD player or a separate processor or DAC) was capable of doing the same. It took almost ten years for some devices to catch up with the best SA-CD (and CD!) players, and these devices were neither cheap nor widely available. I find this 10 year gap intriguing.
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@Scytales - I run a Daclist website (daclist.dnsbits.net) and I think it would be great to put all these tests into a similar database / website, if you are willing to share a spreadsheet containing the data.

Let me know your thoughts.
I updated the files this October 30th, 2023 with 4 new tests (see first post) :

Tests in 24 bits :
Rega Saturn MK3

Tests in 16 bits :
MacIntosh MCD85 AC

After further scrutiny, I discovered that I have made a few errors : the Benchmark DAC 1, Lake People DAC C 460, Musical Fidelity X-DAC V3, RME ADI 2, Profitec TC 7500 et PS Audio DL III et one sample of Electrocompaniet ECD 1 were tested in HR PCM and not in 16 bits PCM.

The files have been corrected.
@Scytales - I run a Daclist website (daclist.dnsbits.net) and I think it would be great to put all these tests into a similar database / website, if you are willing to share a spreadsheet containing the data.

Let me know your thoughts.
I have no objection, providing the source and my nickname are cited (I take responsibility for my mistakes in the files :)).

But, unfortunately, I only have text files and no spreadsheets for the time being.
I have no objection, providing the source and my nickname are cited (I take responsibility for my mistakes in the files :)).

But, unfortunately, I only have text files and no spreadsheets for the time being.
Thank you - I will credit your work. I think that this would be a valuable resource to some people.

Plain text files are fine. I could even process the PDF files if I have to - but plain text would be easier!

I will send you a DM with my email address.
With permission from @Scytales I have created a searchable database with the THD info.

It's still in beta so they might be a few glitches but here it is.

@Curvature I have attached a .csv file (zipped) - however I note you probably already have this as Scytales has proved you with the files.


  • charts.zip
    19.9 KB · Views: 67
Thanks your for your interest in this data table and congratulations for your effort to put your site together :).

However, I see that harmonics and THD which are clearly distinguished by the metrics (dBV or dBr) in the original tables are mixed up on your site and the quoted THD in dBV is directly converted to percentage. To my mind, this is wrong.

For instance, the translation of the quoted -104 dBV THD of the Sony CDP-XA7ES on your site is 0,00063 %, as if the 100% level from which the percentage are calculated is 0 dBV, which is 1 V RMS. But the nominal maximum output level of the Sony CDP-XA7ES when 0 dBFS is played is not 1 V RMS. It is 2 V RMS (about 6 dBV). Actually it is well documented (Stereophile or Audio reviews) that the output level is a bit higher, about 2.5 V RMS (which is about 8 dBV). Thus, the actual THD is not 104 dB under 1 V RMS output level, but 112 dB under 2.5 V RMS, which corresponds to 0.00025 % THD relative to 8 dBV.

Problem is : I was not able to compute harmonics relative to full scale output neither calculate THD in percentage for every source for which the measurements have been showed in dBV by the magazines, because the analogue output level with 0 dBFS digital input of each and every source were scarcely documented.

In conclusion, I recommend that measurements in dBV remain clearly separated from the others and stated in dBV. Otherwise, readers would be mislead.

Also, the nature of the test signal become undocumented on your site.

Perhaps the "Note" column (in which I originally only put casual information about each device) could be replace by a "Test signal" column.

May I suggest a relabeling of the title of each column on your site :

Screenshot 2023-11-01 at 21-09-16 Search term(s) Sony.png
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